The archipelagic nation of Indonesia is positioned between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans and contains over 17,504 islands. Overlaying a complete space of 5,780 km2, the island of Bali is the westernmost island within the Lesser Sunda group and a province of the Republic of Indonesia.
Bali is positioned about 8° south of the Equator, west of Lombok island, and east of Java Island. The two.4 km-wide Bali Strait separates Bali from Java, whereas the 60 km-long Lombok Strait separates Lombok from the island of Bali.
Bali measures roughly 112 km in size and has a most width of about 153 km. A serious a part of Bali is mountainous and the island contains a number of peaks which are greater than 2,000 m in elevation. Mount Agung (Bali Peak), which rises to an elevation of about 3,142m is the very best level on the Bali island. Additionally known as the “Mom Mountain,” Mount Agung is an energetic volcano whose final eruption in 1963 devastated a number of villages and killed greater than 1,500 individuals on the island. There are a couple of small rivers on the island together with the Ayung River, Sungi River, and the Telaga Waja River.
The volcanic nature of Bali has contributed to its distinctive fertility and the island’s tall mountain ranges additionally trigger excessive rainfall, thereby supporting its extremely productive agricultural sector. Situated to the south of the central mountains are the principle lowlands of the island, the place a lot of the rice cultivation is finished. The northern a part of the mountain slopes extra steeply to the ocean and types the island’s main coffee-producing space the place, together with espresso, greens, rice, and cattle are additionally produced. Bali is surrounded by coral reefs. White sand seashores are discovered within the island’s southern half, whereas black sand seashores are discovered within the northern and western elements of the island.
Situated close to the island’s southern coast is Denpasar, the provincial capital and the biggest metropolis of Bali. The three small islands of Nusa Ceningan, Nusa Lembongan, and Nusa Penida are underneath the administration of Bali’s Klungkung regency and are positioned within the southeastern a part of the island. The 20 km-wide Badung Strait separates the three islands from Bali.
As a result of its proximity to the Equator, Bali experiences a significantly even local weather with common every day temperatures ranging between 20 to 33 °C all year long. The monsoon season on the island is from December to March.
Drawn by the well-known naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace in 1859, the Wallace Line is a biogeographical division between the Australian and the Southeast Asian fauna. The island of Bali is positioned to the west of the Wallace Line and therefore possesses comparable faunal traits to that of Southeast Asia. Greater than 280 avian species are present in Bali together with the endemic Bali myna and different species like black-naped oriole, barn swallow, crested serpent eagle, Java sparrow, savanna nightjar, yellow-vented bulbul, sacred kingfisher, and many others. Varied mammalian species like squirrels, Asian palm civets, bats, crab-eating macaque, Javan langur, black large squirrel, Sunda pangolin, and leopard cat are additionally discovered right here. Greater than 500 reef-building coral species have been recorded within the Bali island space.
Many marine animals like barracuda, hawksbill turtle, large sunfish, large moray eel, hammerhead shark, and sea snakes have been recorded within the waters across the Bali island.
Temporary Historical past
Bali was initially inhabited by the Austronesian individuals round 2000 BCE, who migrated to the island from Taiwan. The Balinese individuals had been culturally and linguistically associated to the inhabitants of Malaysia, Oceania, and the Indonesian archipelago. Many of the island’s inhabitants had been followers of Balinese Hinduism and the totally different Hindu sects of Brahma, Bodha, Bhairawa, Ganapatya, Pasupata, Sora, Siwa Shidanta, Resi and Vaishnava existed in historical Bali.
In 914 AD, the Balinese individuals developed Subak, their complicated irrigation system for the cultivation of rice in moist fields. In 1512, the Portuguese explorers Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão had been the primary Europeans to go to the island. Cornelis de Houtman, the Dutch explorer, landed in Bali and established the Dutch East India Firm. The well-known naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace arrived to Bali in June 1860. Through the Second World Conflict, the island was occupied by the Japanese forces. In 1946, Bali turned part of the State of East Indonesia. On December 29, 1949, Bali turned part of the Republic of Indonesia.